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Objectives

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity, sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. Scientists estimate that upwards of 10 million—and some suggest more than 100 million—different species inhabit the Earth. Each species is adapted to its unique niche in the environment, from the peaks of mountains to the depths of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and from polar ice caps to tropical rain forests.

Biodiversity underlies everything from food production to medical research. Humans the world over use at least 40,000 species of plants and animals on a daily basis. Many people around the world still depend on wild species for some or all of their food, shelter, and clothing. All of our domesticated plants and animals came from wild-living ancestral species. Close to 40 percent of the pharmaceuticals used in the United States are either based on or synthesized from natural compounds found in plants, animals, or microorganisms.

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Division Incharge

Biotechnology, the manipulation of biological organisms to make products that benefit human beings. Biotechnology contributes to such diverse areas as food production, waste disposal, mining, and medicine.

Although biotechnology has existed since ancient times, some of its most dramatic advances have come in more recent years. Modern achievements include the transferal of a specific gene from one organism to another (by means of a set of genetic engineering techniques known as transgenics); the maintenance and growth of genetically uniform plant- and animal-cell cultures, called clones; and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies, which are designed to attack a specific type of foreign substance.

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Associates

Taxonomy, science of classifying organisms. Probably the first scientific study of plants was the attempt to classify them. At first, because of the limited knowledge of plant structures, artificial classifications, beginning with the most ancient one into herbs, shrubs, and trees, were necessary. These simple categories merely cataloged, in a tentative way, the rapidly accumulating material, in preparation for a classification based on natural relationships. Modern taxonomic classification, based on the natural concepts and system of the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus, has progressed steadily since the 18th century, modified by advances in knowledge of morphology, evolution, and genetics.

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Activities : Inventorization of Sacred groves in Chhattisgarh

Achievements : classify them. At first, because of the limited knowledge of plant structures, artificial classifications, beginning with the most ancient one into herbs, shrubs, and trees, were necessary. These simple categories merely cataloged, in a tentative way, the rapidly accumulating material, in preparation for a classification based on natural relationships. Modern taxonomic classification, based on the natural concepts.